Review of: Ratzinger Josef

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Ratzinger Josef

Georg Ratzinger: Papst-Bruder mit 96 Jahren gestorben. Der ältere Bruder des früheren Papstes Benedikt XVI. ist tot. Der ehemalige Priester wurde unter. Joseph Ratzinger war noch einmal in Deutschland – anders als früher, als er wie ein Popstar gefeiert wurde. Welches Protokoll gilt für einen. Benedikt XVI. Foto: Andrea Göppel. Joseph Ratzinger Papst em. Joseph Ratzinger, geb. , in Marktl.

Joseph A. Ratzinger geb. 1927

Aktuelle Nachrichten, Informationen und Bilder zum Thema Joseph Ratzinger auf Sünolablogs.com Joseph Ratzinger war noch einmal in Deutschland – anders als früher, als er wie ein Popstar gefeiert wurde. Welches Protokoll gilt für einen. Benedikt XVI. (lateinisch Benedictus PP. XVI; * April in Marktl als Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger) ist emeritierter Papst (lat. Papa emeritus). Vom

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More reaction to election of Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger as new pope

11/25/ · Am März ernannte Papst Paul VI. Joseph Ratzinger zum Erzbischof von München und nolablogs.com Bischofsweihe empfing er am Mai durch den Bischof von Würzburg, Josef Stangl, im Münchner Dom zu Unserer Lieben Frau; Mitkonsekratoren waren der Bischof von Regensburg, Rudolf Graber, sowie der Weihbischof in München und Freising, .

In der Silvesternacht wollte Ratzinger Josef ihr Leben ein Ratzinger Josef setzen, eine medizinisch notwendige Behandlung verweigern. - Artikel teilen:

Nur zwei Stunden braucht Fleischmann, um Kollegen anzurufen und Sektenkinder Zum Dienen Geboren Team aus acht Personen zusammenzustellen.
Ratzinger Josef Benedikt XVI. ist emeritierter Papst. Vom April bis zu seinem Amtsverzicht am Februar war er Oberhaupt der römisch-katholischen Kirche und damit auch Staatsoberhaupt des Kleinstaates Vatikanstadt. Benedikt XVI. (lateinisch Benedictus PP. XVI; * April in Marktl als Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger) ist emeritierter Papst (lat. Papa emeritus). Vom Benedikt XVI., mit bürgerlichem Namen Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, ist der Papst () der römisch-katholischen Kirche und erster deutscher Papst. Joseph Ratzinger erblickte als drittes Kind der Eheleute Josef und Maria Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn das Licht der Welt. Am April , einem Karsamstag. Der neue Papst aus Deutschland. On 11 FebruaryBenedict unexpectedly announced his resignation in a Serie Italiane in Latin before Ratzinger Josef cardinals, citing a "lack of strength of mind and body" due to his advanced age. In: Samsung Galaxy S10 Wallpaper. Nach eigener Auskunft wurde der nach Abkehr von der Dominanz des Neukantianismus suchende Student insbesondere durch Werke Deadpool Wolverine Gertrud von le FortErnst WiechertFjodor DostojewskiElisabeth LanggässerTheodor SteinbüchelMartin Heidegger und Karl Jaspers beeinflusst. Juni kündigte Benedikt die Errichtung des Päpstlichen Ratzinger Josef zur Förderung der Neuevangelisierung für nachchristentümliche Gemeinschaften an. Mai von Ratzinger rechtswirksam. Sacramentum caritatis On the Eucharist Verbum Domini On the Word of the Lord Africae munus On the Church in Africa Ecclesia in Medio Oriente On the Church in the Middle East. As pope, Benedict was Grand Master of the following orders: Supreme Order of ChristOrder of the Golden SpurOrder of Pius IXEquestrian Order of St. Benedict of Nursia was the founder of the Benedictine monasteries most monasteries of the Middle Ages were of the Benedictine order and the author of the Rule of Saint Benedictwhich is still the most influential writing regarding the monastic life of Western Christianity. La Shoah sia per tutti monito contro l'oblio, contro la negazione o il riduzionismo. Retrieved 2 February Grisaia No Kajitsu Serien Stream
Ratzinger Josef

Seinen Habilitationsvortrag zum Thema Die Einheit zwischen fundamentaltheologischer und dogmatischer Betrachtungsweise der Kirche hielt er am Februar Seine Antrittsvorlesung hielt er am Juni über das Thema Der Gott des Glaubens und der Gott der Philosophen.

Nach einem kurzen Aufenthalt im Theologenkonvikt Collegium Albertinum wohnte er in seiner Bonner Zeit in Bad Godesberg ; seine Schwester Maria führte ihm den Haushalt.

Juni in einem überfüllten Hörsaal im Fürstenberghaus am Domplatz. Joseph Ratzinger gehörte dem Ökumenischen Arbeitskreis evangelischer und katholischer Theologen an.

Ab war er dessen ordentliches Mitglied, ab seiner Ernennung zum Präfekten der Glaubenskongregation nur noch korrespondierendes.

Die Mitgliedschaft endete mit seiner Wahl zum Papst Januar Unmittelbar betroffen von den Studentenprotesten der ausgehenden er Jahre, nahm er den Ruf an die Fakultät für Katholische Theologie der Universität Regensburg an.

Dort lehrte er Dogmatik und Dogmengeschichte und gründete zusammen mit Alma von Stockhausen die Gustav-Siewerth-Akademie.

In Pentling nahe Regensburg bewohnte er ab ein eigenes Haus , bis er zum Erzbischof von München ernannt wurde. Er behielt das Haus; es blieb auch nach seiner Wahl zum Papst seine gemeldete Adresse in Deutschland.

Seit seiner Berufung zum Erzbischof ist er Honorarprofessor in Regensburg. Dies und seine herausragende theologische Begabung werden als die Gründe für seine spätere Ernennung zum Präfekten der Kongregation für die Glaubenslehre genannt.

Joseph Ratzinger hat keine theologische Schule begründet. Eine von Ratzinger verfasste Rede, die der Kölner Erzbischof Kardinal Frings in der Vorbereitungsphase zum Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzil — in Genua hielt, richtete sich gegen die neoscholastische Erstarrung Roms und gegen Missstände im Heiligen Offizium.

Johannes XXIII. Insbesondere zur Besetzung von Kommissionen oder zum Kurientext über die Offenbarung vertrat er eine reformfreudige Auffassung.

Zusammen mit Walter Kasper , Karl Lehmann , Karl Rahner und anderen plädierte er im Februar mit dem Memorandum zur Zölibatsdikussion für eine eindringliche Überprüfung und differenziertere Betrachtung des Zölibatsgesetzes der lateinischen Kirche.

Am Joseph Ratzinger zum Erzbischof von München und Freising. Die Bischofsweihe empfing er am Mai durch den Bischof von Würzburg , Josef Stangl , im Münchner Dom zu Unserer Lieben Frau ; Mitkonsekratoren waren der Bischof von Regensburg , Rudolf Graber , sowie der Weihbischof in München und Freising, Ernst Tewes.

Bereits einen Monat später wurde er am Juni als Kardinalpriester mit der Titelkirche Santa Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino in das Kardinalskollegium aufgenommen.

Die Zeit als Erzbischof nimmt in den meisten biografischen Blicken auf Joseph Ratzinger wegen ihrer Kürze nur einen geringen Platz ein.

Er sollte in München eine Therapie machen. Das Erzbistum München und Freising stellte hierzu in einer Erklärung vom Diesen Beschluss hat der damalige Erzbischof mit gefasst.

Erst seit anderthalb Jahren als Münchner Erzbischof im Amt, bat Ratzinger um Bedenkzeit. Februar legte er das Amt als Erzbischof nieder.

Dienstantritt in Rom war der 1. Mit der Aufnahme der Tätigkeit im Dienst des Heiligen Stuhls erhielt er die vatikanische Staatsbürgerschaft , die funktionsbezogen und in der Regel auf die Dauer der Funktion im Vatikan beschränkt ist.

Auch die Bundesrepublik Deutschland gestattet diese Doppelstaatsbürgerschaft gewöhnlich. Die deutsche Bundesregierung erklärte nach Ratzingers Wahl zum Papst auf eine Kleine Anfrage , dass kein Merkmal für den Verlust der deutschen Staatsbürgerschaft vorliege.

Der Kardinal trat als Präfekt der Glaubenskongregation für den priesterlichen Zölibat , gegen einige Aspekte der Befreiungstheologie , gegen die rechtliche Anerkennung gleichgeschlechtlicher Beziehungen und für die Aktualität der in Humanae vitae definierten katholischen Sexuallehre ein.

Als Präfekt der Glaubenskongregation ordnete Kardinal Ratzinger im Januar die Öffnung der zuvor streng geheimen Archive der Inquisition und Indexkongregation an.

Die umfangreichen Aufgaben der römischen Weltkirche veranlassten Ratzinger selbst, den Papst wiederholt um seine Entlassung zu bitten, um sich an seinem bayerischen Wohnort Pentling bei Regensburg der Schriftstellerei widmen zu können.

Zu seinem Geburtstag im Jahr wollte er das Rücktrittsgesuch stellen, das traditionellerweise beim Erreichen dieses Alters eingereicht wird.

Ratzingers Haltung in Fragen der Ökumene wurde während seiner Zeit als Präfekt der Glaubenskongregation unterschiedlich bewertet. Die Beispiele zeigen, dass Ratzinger für einen ökumenischen Dialog eintritt, dieser für ihn aber nicht bedeuten kann, dass die katholische Kirche eigene Glaubensprofile, Überzeugungen und Selbstverständnisse ignoriert, verändert oder aufgibt.

Dies könne jedoch nur überzeugen, wenn die Religionen untereinander Frieden machten. Kritiker bemängeln diese Festlegungen, da Begründungen für diese Abschnitte fehlten oder tautologisch seien, insbesondere dort, wo sie — zum Teil sehr weit — über jene der zehn Gebote hinausgehen.

Von der katholischen Kirche wird dieser Einwand mit dem Hinweis zurückgewiesen, dass die Kirche die Berechtigung habe, die Bibel verbindlich auszulegen.

Als Papst übergab er am Juni ein Kompendium der katholischen Lehre, eine Kurzfassung des Katechismus der katholischen Kirche, der Öffentlichkeit.

Auch an dessen Fertigstellung wirkte er bereits als Präfekt der Glaubenskongregation wesentlich mit. Kritik erfuhr Ratzinger unter anderem von Homosexuellenverbänden [45] für seine ablehnende Haltung gegenüber der rechtlichen Anerkennung der Lebensgemeinschaften zwischen homosexuellen Personen.

Der Ausstieg geschah gegen die Mehrheitsmeinung der deutschen Bischöfe, die der Überzeugung waren, dass die Schwangerenberatung einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Schutz von ungeborenem Leben leiste.

Während des amerikanischen Präsidentschaftswahlkampfes gab Ratzinger in einem Schreiben den US-Bischöfen die Empfehlung, dass Politikern, die in ihrem Wahlkampf- und Stimmverhalten durchgängig für sehr freizügige Abtreibungs- und Sterbehilfegesetze eintreten, die Kommunion zu verweigern sei; der Katholik und demokratische Präsidentschaftskandidat John Kerry stand für eine solche Gesetzgebung.

Nach Auffassung Christoph Kardinal Schönborns ging Ratzinger als Präfekt der Glaubenskongregation entschieden gegen sexuellen Missbrauch vor.

Auf seine Initiative hin wurde ein eigener Gerichtshof an der Kongregation für die Glaubenslehre zur Verurteilung von Missbrauchstätern eingerichtet.

Auf ihn geht auch die Verschärfung der Ausführungsbestimmungen über die entsprechenden kirchlichen Normen zurück.

April von Johannes Paul II. Mai von Ratzinger rechtswirksam. Damit verteidigte Zollner im November den emeritierten Papst. April vorzustehen, aus dem er selbst als Papst hervorging.

April Am Nachmittag des April fiel die Wahl schon im vierten Wahlgang auf Joseph Ratzinger. Vor allem vertraue ich mich euren Gebeten an.

In der Freude des auferstandenen Herrn und im Vertrauen auf seine immerwährende Hilfe gehen wir voran. Der Herr wird uns helfen, und Maria, seine allerseligste Mutter, steht uns zur Seite.

Wahl Am Sonntag, dem Vor mehreren hunderttausend Gläubigen und Regierungsvertretern aus aller Welt betonte er, dass er keine Regierungserklärung abgeben wolle.

Er sprach von einem unerhörten Auftrag, der doch alles menschliche Vermögen überschreitet. Zugleich betonte er: Die Kirche lebt, die Kirche ist jung!

Weltjugendtag in Köln. Mai bis Kurz nach seiner Amtseinführung bestätigte der neue Papst Angelo Kardinal Sodano in seinem Amt als Kardinalstaatssekretär sowie alle Leiter der Kongregationen.

Seine eigene ehemalige Funktion als Vorsitzender der Kongregation für die Glaubenslehre übertrug er knapp einen Monat später dem damaligen Erzbischof von San Francisco , William Joseph Levada.

Personelle Neubesetzungen folgten mit der Ernennung von Ivan Kardinal Dias zum Präfekten der Kongregation für die Evangelisierung der Völker am Mai, von Tarcisio Bertone zum Kardinalstaatssekretär und von Giovanni Lajolo zum Präsidenten der Päpstlichen Kommission für den Staat der Vatikanstadt und des Governatorats der Vatikanstadt am Oktober In mehreren kleinen Entscheidungen, etwa hinsichtlich der vorübergehenden Benutzung eines Palliums im alten Stil oder der Wortwahl bei seiner Besitzergreifung der Lateranbasilika , ist eine Orientierung an der Tradition der ungeteilten Kirche vor zu erkennen sowie eine bescheidenere und weniger zentralistische Art der Amtsführung, was sich zum Beispiel in der Rückübertragung der Seligsprechung sfeiern an die Ortskirchen zeigt.

Im innerchristlichen Dialog sind vor allem die Bemühungen um eine Annäherung an die orthodoxen Kirchen anzumerken. Jahrhundert geführt hatten.

Er wurde daraufhin im Annuario Pontificio aus der offiziellen Titulatur entfernt. Diesem letztgenannten Briefwechsel folgte die Einladung von Bartholomäus I.

Auch wurde am Mai die erste russisch-orthodoxe Kirche in Rom durch den Metropoliten Kyrill I. Im Zuge dieses Rombesuches kam es auch zu einem Treffen mit dem Papst.

Spannungen zwischen der Volksrepublik China und dem Vatikan traten im Mai auf, nachdem die von der Staatsführung in China autorisierte Katholisch-Patriotische Vereinigung binnen zwei Wochen zwei Bischöfe geweiht und einen in sein Amt eingeführt hatte, ohne auf die Zustimmung des Vatikans zu warten.

Der Papst, der die Vereinigung und ihre Grundsätze mit der katholischen Lehre unvereinbar hält, kritisierte später offen die Einschränkungen der Religions- und Gewissensfreiheit in China.

In Italien kam es im Frühjahr zwischen der Kirche und der Regierung unter Romano Prodi zu Spannungen, da die Regierung in Italien plante, homosexuelle Paare staatlicherseits anzuerkennen.

Verschiedene Politiker in Italien, Journalisten und Künstler warfen dem Vatikan und Papst daher eine ihrer Meinung nach unberechtigte Einflussnahme in die Innenpolitik Italiens vor.

Bei der Eröffnung der lateinamerikanischen Bischofskonferenz im brasilianischen Aparecida [69] am Sie warfen dem Papst vor, als damaliger Präfekt der Glaubenskongregation in einer Rede am Bei einer sechstägigen Reise in die Vereinigten Staaten wurde er am April von Präsident George W.

Bush empfangen. Er traf sich auch mit Männern und Frauen, die als Kinder oder Jugendliche von Priestern missbraucht worden waren.

Lobend würdigte er die tiefe Spiritualität in den USA. In einer Rede vor der UN-Vollversammlung in New York am April forderte er die Vereinten Nationen zu einer Politik der vorbeugenden Konfliktlösung auf.

April Ground Zero , den Ort der Anschläge gegen das World Trade Center am September , und feierte eine Heilige Messe im Yankee-Stadion vor zehntausenden Besuchern.

Ein weiterer Schritt der Annäherung an die Orthodoxie war am Juni die Eröffnung des Paulusjahres zum Gedenken an das ungefähre Peter am folgenden Tag, dem Patronatsfest Peter und Paul.

Juni kündigte Benedikt die Errichtung des Päpstlichen Rates zur Förderung der Neuevangelisierung für nachchristentümliche Gemeinschaften an.

Oktober , dem Jahrestag der Eröffnung des Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzils, und endete am Christkönigsfest November Dabei betonte er stets, den Dialog der Religionen und Kulturen in der Tradition des Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzils vgl.

Das unter Verzicht auf lehramtliche Autorität veröffentlichte Buch Jesus von Nazareth. Kritik vonseiten einiger Vertreter des Protestantismus erntete das am Juli veröffentlichte Dokument der Kongregation für die Glaubenslehre , das die Einzigartigkeit der römisch-katholischen Kirche betont.

Die Glaubenskongregation bekräftigte damit die im Jahr veröffentlichte Erklärung Dominus Iesus , die von ihr unter dem Vorsitz des damaligen Präfekten Joseph Kardinal Ratzinger herausgegeben worden war.

Die Kommission für Glauben und Kirchenverfassung bemüht sich daher in einer theologischen Studie um eine Verständigung in der Frage des Kirchenverständnisses Ekklesiologie.

September vor Wissenschaftlern an der Universität Regensburg eine Vorlesung. Konziliant zeigten sich dagegen 38 hochrangige islamische Gelehrte, die in einem offenen Brief vom Oktober [] der Darstellung ihres Glaubens im verwendeten Zitat in der Rede des Papstes zwar widersprachen, zugleich aber für eine Fortführung des Dialogs zwischen Christentum und Islam eintraten.

Wenn die Diskussion um die Rede dazu gedient haben sollte, dass der Dialog zwischen Christentum und Islam ernsthafter werde, habe sie ihren guten Sinn gehabt.

Il 29 ottobre fu ordinato diacono da Johannes Baptist Neuhäusler, vescovo titolare di Calidone e ausiliare di Monaco e Frisinga.

L'11 luglio discusse la tesi di dottorato in teologia su sant'Agostino , dal titolo Popolo e casa di Dio nella dottrina agostiniana della Chiesa , riportando la valutazione massima summa cum laude.

Nel dicembre ottenne la cattedra di teologia dogmatica e fondamentale presso l'Istituto superiore di teologia e filosofia di Frisinga. Durante il tempo del Concilio, per la collaborazione con teologi come Hans Küng e Edward Schillebeeckx , Ratzinger fu visto come un riformatore.

Durante questo tempo prese le distanze dall'atmosfera di Tubinga e dalle tendenze marxiste del movimento studentesco degli anni sessanta, che divenne rapidamente radicale negli anni e , concludendosi in una serie di disturbi e disordini nei mesi di aprile e maggio Communio , ora pubblicata in diciassette lingue, tra cui tedesco, inglese e spagnolo, divenne un giornale di spicco del pensiero teologico cattolico nell'orizzonte contemporaneo.

Il 24 marzo venne nominato arcivescovo di Monaco e Frisinga da papa Paolo VI e il 28 maggio dello stesso anno ricevette la consacrazione episcopale per mano di Josef Stangl , vescovo di Würzburg , assistito dal vescovo di Ratisbona Rudolf Graber e dal vescovo ausiliare di Monaco e Frisinga Ernst Tewes.

Lo stesso monsignor Ratzinger ne dette spiegazione:. Dal al fu inoltre chiamato a presiedere la Commissione per la preparazione del Catechismo per la Chiesa universale.

Prese possesso della sede il 16 maggio Dal fu presidente della Commissione cardinalizia per la preparazione del Compendio del Catechismo della Chiesa cattolica.

Gli incarichi di prefetto e presidente delle commissioni pontificie terminarono il 2 aprile con la morte di papa Giovanni Paolo II. Secondo l'accusa, il documento della Congregazione potrebbe aver favorito la copertura di prelati coinvolti nei casi di molestie sessuali negli Stati Uniti molti dei quali su minorenni.

Il 27 novembre venne eletto decano del collegio cardinalizio e il 30 novembre seguente ottenne, in aggiunta alla sede suburbicaria di Velletri-Segni , la sede di Ostia quale privilegio del decano del Sacro collegio.

Ma siamo noi stessi a sporcarli! Siamo noi stessi a tradirti ogni volta, dopo tutte le nostre grandi parole, i nostri grandi gesti.

Come vuole la costituzione apostolica Universi Dominici Gregis , presiedette inoltre la Missa pro eligendo Romano Pontifice il mattino del 18 aprile , che fu il rito d'apertura dei lavori del conclave per l'elezione del successore di papa Giovanni Paolo II.

Ratzinger fu eletto papa durante il secondo giorno del conclave del , al quarto scrutinio, nel pomeriggio del 19 aprile Scelse il nome di papa "Benedetto XVI".

Alle fu dato l'annuncio dell'elezione con la tradizionale fumata bianca del comignolo della Cappella Sistina ci fu in effetti un'iniziale incertezza sul colore del fumo, ma i dubbi furono sciolti alle , dal suono delle campane della basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano.

Mi consola il fatto che il Signore sa lavorare ed agire anche con strumenti insufficienti e soprattutto mi affido alle vostre preghiere. Nella gioia del Signore risorto, fiduciosi nel suo aiuto permanente, andiamo avanti.

La progressiva espansione dell' ordine benedettino da lui fondato ha esercitato un influsso enorme nella diffusione del cristianesimo in tutto il continente.

Papa Benedetto ha deciso di rinunciare a tale titolo per facilitare il dialogo con le chiese ortodosse, pure ampiamente diffuse nel mondo occidentale.

Di rosso, cappato di oro, alla conchiglia dello stesso; la cappa destra, alla testa di moro al naturale, coronata e collarinata di rosso; la cappa sinistra, all'orso al naturale, lampassato e caricato di un fardello di rosso, cinghiato di nero.

Lo stemma fu disegnato per mano di monsignor Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo , esperto in araldica, su indicazione dell' Ufficio delle celebrazioni liturgiche del sommo pontefice.

Nello stemma di Benedetto XVI non compare nessun motto, come del resto non compariva neppure negli stemmi dei suoi immediati predecessori.

Come posso fare questo? Voi tutti, cari amici, avete appena invocato l'intera schiera dei santi, rappresentata da alcuni dei grandi nomi della storia di Dio con gli uomini.

In tal modo, anche in me si ravviva questa consapevolezza: non sono solo. La schiera dei santi di Dio mi protegge, mi sostiene e mi porta.

Il 7 maggio nella basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano si tenne la messa d'insediamento sulla cattedra romana del vescovo di Roma.

Allo stesso modo il cardinale Paul Poupard presiedette il Pontificio consiglio della cultura e il Pontificio consiglio per il dialogo interreligioso , anche se entrambi i consigli mantennero separati uffici.

Con motu proprio datato 11 giugno , intitolato De aliquibus mutationibus in normis de electione romani pontificis Benedetto XVI ha emendato la costituzione apostolica Universi Dominici Gregis del di Giovanni Paolo II, ristabilendo il quorum della maggioranza di due terzi, indipendentemente dal numero di scrutini, per l'elezione dei pontefici.

Di conseguenza, l'unica interpretazione lecita dei documenti del Concilio Vaticano II , deve comunque procedere in assoluto accordo, rispetto al contenuto e allo spirito delle precedenti proposizioni che hanno dato vita al depositum Fidei proprio alla tradizione cattolica: [48].

Il 10 marzo ha ribadito questa convinzione, affermando che: [49]. Un utopismo anarchico! Benedetto XVI, dopo l'elezione papale, ha comunque celebrato sempre secondo il messale di Paolo VI.

A partire dal , durante le udienze generali tenute all'aperto, nei mesi estivi, ha utilizzato il " saturno ", un copricapo rosso a tesa larga, adatto soprattutto a proteggersi dal caldo, spesso indossato da Giovanni XXIII e da Paolo VI e, nei primi anni di pontificato, anche da Giovanni Paolo II.

Papa Benedetto XVI ha ripreso anche l'uso delle tradizionali scarpe pontificie rosse, cadute in disuso durante il pontificato di Giovanni Paolo II. Al contrario delle iniziali speculazioni della stampa che aveva riportato come tali scarpe fossero state realizzate dalla casa stilistica Prada , il Vaticano ha annunciato che tali scarpe sono state realizzate dal calzolaio personale del pontefice.

Durante la sua visita al l'Aquila dopo il grave terremoto del 6 aprile , Benedetto XVI ha infine offerto il pallio del a papa Celestino V , lasciandolo sulle sue spoglie custodite presso la basilica di Santa Maria di Collemaggio.

Contestualmente Benedetto XVI ha cambiato anche il pastorale , ripristinando il modello usato da papa Pio IX ferula , dorato a forma di croce latina al posto di quello argentato di Lello Scorzelli con la figura del crocifisso introdotto da papa Paolo VI.

Il 13 gennaio Benedetto XVI ha celebrato la messa all'altare antico della Cappella Sistina rivolto ad orientem , [59] ossia con il viso rivolto verso l'altare.

La richiesta di riduzione allo stato laicale, inizialmente respinta, era stata posta dallo stesso Lugo all'indomani della sua avvenuta elezione.

La colpevolezza di Padre Maciel fu riconosciuta dai Legionari di Cristo [66] e dichiarata esplicitamente dalla Santa Sede [67] nel Il 20 marzo Benedetto XVI ha pubblicato una lettera pastorale rivolta ai fedeli cattolici d' Irlanda.

Avete perso la stima della gente dell'Irlanda e rovesciato vergogna e disonore sui vostri confratelli. Nel febbraio del l'accusa venne ritirata dallo stesso avvocato querelante Jeff Anderson.

Secondo il legale della Santa Sede Jeffrey S. Nel giugno del , i mezzi di comunicazione informarono che la Corte penale internazionale aveva respinto la richiesta del Centro per i diritti costituzionali, affermando la propria mancanza di giurisdizione sui fatti.

Sette i viaggi apostolici intercontinentali: in Brasile , negli Stati Uniti d'America , in Messico , a Cuba , in Australia , in Africa Camerun , Angola e Benin , nel Libano e in Terra santa Giordania e Israele.

Benedetto XVI ha presieduto cinque concistori : il primo il 24 marzo , il secondo il 24 novembre , il terzo il 20 novembre , il quarto il 18 febbraio , il quinto il 24 novembre Nel primo ha nominato 15 cardinali di cui 12 elettori , nel secondo 23 di cui 18 elettori , nel terzo 24 di cui 20 elettori , nel quarto 22 di cui 18 elettori , nel quinto 6.

Nel primo concistoro del sono stati elevati alla porpora prevalentemente arcivescovi impegnati nel governo pastorale di una diocesi nel mondo.

Con il quarto concistoro ha creato cardinali in buon numero italiani e appartenenti alla Curia, mentre nessuno dei cardinali creati nel quinto concistoro era europeo.

Restituire il pontificato? E tra la contraerea e le SS c'era una bella differenza davanti alla Coscienza del mondo.

Ma vogliamo scherzare? Una cosa era aiutare, obbligati, i cannonieri antiaerei contro i bombardieri alleati, altro era vestire da volontari l'uniforme di chi massacrava partigiani sovietici, ebrei polacchi o donne e bambini francesi a Oradour-sur-Glane.

Nello stesso giorno la televisione svedese SVT rese infatti pubblica un'intervista nella quale mons. La Shoah sia per tutti monito contro l'oblio, contro la negazione o il riduzionismo.

Nuove critiche sono state indirizzare a Ratzinger durante il suo viaggio in Camerun e Angola del marzo Alla domanda se durante il viaggio avrebbe affrontato il problema della lotta contro l' AIDS , Benedetto XVI ha dichiarato che la distribuzione dei preservativi non sarebbe una soluzione contro l'AIDS, ma anzi costituirebbe un aggravio del problema.

Papa Benedetto XVI ha assunto un ruolo di primo piano nell'insegnamento e nella spiegazione della fede cattolica, e ancora nella ricerca di soluzioni ai problemi di discernimento della fede.

Si va costituendo una dittatura del relativismo che non riconosce nulla come definitivo e che lascia come ultima misura solo il proprio io e le sue voglie.

Inserendosi in un solco tracciato dal predecessore [96] Papa Benedetto XVI ha spesso definito il relativismo l'odierno problema centrale della fede; il 6 giugno , in un discorso alla Diocesi di Roma presso la basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano , ha osservato:.

Questa auto-amputazione della ragione porterebbe a patologie della religione come il terrorismo e a patologie della scienza come i disastri ecologici.

Lo stesso 6 giugno Benedetto XVI ha aggiunto delle considerazioni sui temi del matrimonio, del sesso e dell'aborto:. Nel n. According to an interview with Peter Seewald [ who?

The young Ratzinger saw the last three in particular as a break with the dominance of neo-Kantianism , with the key work being Steinbüchel's Die Wende des Denkens The Change in Thinking.

By the end of his studies, he was drawn more to the active Saint Augustine than to Thomas Aquinas , and among the scholastics he was more interested in Saint Bonaventure.

On 29 June , the brothers, along with other seminarians from Traunstein seminary, were ordained in Freising by Cardinal Faulhaber of Munich.

His dissertation was on Augustine, entitled "The People and the House of God in Augustine's Doctrine of the Church", and his Habilitationsschrift a dissertation which serves as qualification for a professorship was on Bonaventure.

It was completed in and he became a professor of Freising college in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Joseph Ratzinger, Sr. Nazi Germany to World War II portal. John L. Allen, Retrieved 16 September Milestones: Memoirs — Ignatius Press.

POPE BENEDICT XVI SERVANT OF THE TRUTH. CS1 maint: location link. Pope Benedict XVI. Early life Family Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith conclave Resignation.

Cardinals created People venerated People beatified Saints canonized Pastoral visits United States. Theology Dominus Iesus The Lord Jesus Summorum Pontificum The Supreme Pontiffs Introduction to Christianity Ecumenism Judaism Islam.

Today, this should be precisely [Christianity's] philosophical strength, in so far as the problem is whether the world comes from the irrational, and reason is not other than a 'sub-product,' on occasion even harmful of its development—or whether the world comes from reason, and is, as a consequence, its criterion and goal In the so necessary dialogue between secularists and Catholics, we Christians must be very careful to remain faithful to this fundamental line: to live a faith that comes from the Logos , from creative reason, and that, because of this, is also open to all that is truly rational.

Benedict also emphasised that "Only creative reason, which in the crucified God is manifested as love, can really show us the way.

Pope Benedict wrote three encyclicals : Deus caritas est Latin for "God is Love" , Spe Salvi "Saved by Hope" , and Caritas in veritate "Love in Truth".

In his first encyclical, Deus caritas est , he said that a human being, created in the image of God who is love, is able to practice love: to give himself to God and others agape by receiving and experiencing God's love in contemplation.

This life of love, according to him, is the life of the saints such as Teresa of Calcutta and the Blessed Virgin Mary , and is the direction Christians take when they believe that God loves them in Jesus Christ.

The encyclical contains almost 16, words in 42 paragraphs. The first half is said to have been written by Benedict in German, his first language, in the summer of ; the second half is derived from uncompleted writings left by his predecessor, Pope John Paul II.

It is the first encyclical to be published since the Vatican decided to assert copyright in the official writings of the pope.

Benedict's second encyclical titled Spe Salvi "Saved by Hope" , about the virtue of hope , was released on 30 November Peter and Paul and released on 7 July He condemned the prevalent economic system "where the pernicious effects of sin are evident," and called on people to rediscover ethics in business and economic relations.

At the time of his resignation, Benedict had completed a draft of a fourth encyclical entitled Lumen fidei "The Light of Faith" , [] intended to accompany his first two encyclicals to complete a trilogy on the three theological virtues of faith , hope , and love.

Benedict's successor, Francis , completed and published Lumen Fidei in June , four months after Benedict's retirement and Francis' succession.

Although the encyclical is officially the work of Francis, paragraph 7 of the encyclical explicitly expresses Francis' debt to Benedict: "These considerations on faith — in continuity with all that the Church's magisterium has pronounced on this theological virtue — are meant to supplement what Benedict XVI had written in his encyclical letters on charity and hope.

He himself had almost completed a first draft of an encyclical on faith. For this I am deeply grateful to him, and as his brother in Christ I have taken up his fine work and added a few contributions of my own.

Sacramentum caritatis The Sacrament of Charity , signed 22 February , was released in Latin, Italian, English, French, German, Portuguese, Spanish and Polish.

It was made available in various languages 13 March in Rome. The English edition from Libera Editrice Vaticana is pages.

This apostolic exhortation "seeks to take up the richness and variety of the reflections and proposals which emerged from the Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops" which was held in On 7 July , Benedict XVI issued the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum , declaring that upon "the request of the faithful", celebration of Mass according to the Missal of commonly known as the Tridentine Mass , was to be more easily permitted.

Stable groups who previously had to petition their bishop to have a Tridentine Mass may now merely request permission from their local priest.

In an accompanying letter, the Pope outlined his position concerning questions about the new guidelines. He pointed out that use of Tridentine Mass "was never juridically abrogated and, consequently, in principle, was always permitted.

The Pope considered that allowing the Tridentine Mass to those who request it was a means to prevent or heal schism , stating that, on occasions in history, "not enough was done by the Church's leaders to maintain or regain reconciliation and unity" and that this "imposes an obligation on us today: to make every effort to enable for all those who truly desire unity to remain in that unity or to attain it anew.

Bishop Bernard Fellay , superior general of the SSPX, expressed "deep gratitude to the Sovereign Pontiff for this great spiritual benefit".

Near the end of June , the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a document approved by Benedict XVI "because some contemporary theological interpretations of Vatican II 's ecumenical intent had been 'erroneous or ambiguous' and had prompted confusion and doubt.

Benedict XVI condemned excessive consumerism , especially among youth. He stated in December that "[A]dolescents, youths and even children are easy victims of the corruption of love, deceived by unscrupulous adults who, lying to themselves and to them, draw them into the dead-end streets of consumerism.

Speaking at his weekly audience in St Peter's Square on 7 June , Pope Benedict asserted that Jesus himself had entrusted the leadership of the Church to his apostle Peter.

Let us pray so that the primacy of Peter , entrusted to poor human beings, may always be exercised in this original sense desired by the Lord, so that it will be increasingly recognised in its true meaning by brothers who are still not in communion with us.

Also in , Benedict met Rowan Williams , Archbishop of Canterbury and spiritual head of the Anglican Communion.

In their Common Declaration, they highlighted the previous 40 years of dialogue between Catholics and Anglicans while also acknowledging "serious obstacles to our ecumenical progress".

When Benedict ascended to the Papacy his election was welcomed by the Anti-Defamation League who noted "his great sensitivity to Jewish history and the Holocaust ".

Critics have accused Benedict's papacy of insensitivity towards Judaism. The two most prominent instances were the expansion of the use of the Tridentine Mass and the lifting of the excommunication on four bishops from the Society of St.

Pius X SSPX. In the Good Friday service, the traditional Mass rubrics include a prayer that asks God to lift the veil so they [Jews] may be delivered from their darkness.

This prayer has historically been contentious in Judaic-Catholic relations and several groups saw the restoration of the Tridentine Mass as problematic.

Pope Benedict's relations with Islam were strained at times. On 12 September he delivered a lecture which touched on Islam at the University of Regensburg in Germany.

He had served there as a professor of theology before becoming Pope, and his lecture was entitled "Faith, Reason and the University—Memories and Reflections".

The lecture received much attention from political and religious authorities. Many Islamic politicians and religious leaders registered their protest against what they labelled an insulting mischaracterisation of Islam, although his focus was aimed towards the rationality of religious violence, and its effect on the religion.

The passage originally appeared in the Dialogue Held with a Certain Persian, the Worthy Mouterizes, in Anakara of Galatia [] [] written in as an expression of the views of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Paleologus , one of the last Christian rulers before the Fall of Constantinople to the Muslim Ottoman Empire , on such issues as forced conversion , holy war , and the relationship between faith and reason.

According to the German text, the Pope's original comment was that the emperor "addresses his interlocutor in an astoundingly harsh—to us surprisingly harsh—way" wendet er sich in erstaunlich schroffer, uns überraschend schroffer Form.

Benedict planned on 5 March , to meet with Muslim scholars and religious leaders autumn at a Catholic-Muslim seminar in Rome.

The Dalai Lama congratulated Pope Benedict XVI upon his election, [] and visited him in October in the Vatican City. In , China was accused of using its political influence to stop a meeting between the Pope and the Dalai Lama.

While visiting Brazil in May , "the pope sparked controversy by saying that native populations had been 'silently longing' for the Christian faith brought to South America by colonizers.

While visiting the United States on 17 April , Benedict met with International Society for Krishna Consciousness representative Radhika Ramana Dasa ; [] a noted Hindu scholar [] and disciple of Hanumatpreshaka Swami.

As pontiff, Benedict XVI carried out numerous Apostolic activities including journeys across the world and in the Vatican. Benedict travelled extensively during the first three years of his papacy.

In addition to his travels within Italy, Pope Benedict XVI made two visits to his homeland, Germany, one for World Youth Day and another to visit the towns of his childhood.

He also visited Poland and Spain, where he was enthusiastically received. His visit was met by nationalist and Islamic protesters [] and was placed under unprecedented security measures.

In June , Benedict made a personal pilgrimage and pastoral visit to Assisi , the birthplace of St. In September, Benedict undertook a three-day visit to Austria, [] during which he joined Vienna's Chief Rabbi , Paul Chaim Eisenberg, in a memorial to the 65, Viennese Jews who perished in Nazi death camps.

In April , Pope Benedict XVI made his first visit to the United States since becoming pope. President George W. The Pope travelled to New York where he addressed the United Nations General Assembly.

Patrick's Cathedral , met with disabled children and their families, and attended an event for Catholic youth, where he addressed some 25, young people in attendance.

In July , the Pope travelled to Australia to attend World Youth Day in Sydney. On 19 July, in St. Mary's Cathedral , he made an apology for child sex abuse perpetrated by the clergy in Australia.

During his visit, he suggested that altering sexual behavior was the answer to Africa's AIDS crisis, and urged Catholics to reach out and convert believers in sorcery.

He visited the Middle East Jordan, Israel and Palestine in May Pope Benedict's main arena for pastoral activity was the Vatican itself, his Christmas and Easter homilies and Urbi et Orbi are delivered from St Peter's Basilica.

The Vatican is also the only regular place where Benedict XVI traveled via motor without the protective bulletproof case common to most popemobiles.

Despite the more secure setting, Pope Benedict was victim to security risks several times inside Vatican City.

On Wednesday, 6 June during his General Audience a man leapt across a barrier, evaded guards and nearly mounted the Pope's vehicle, although he was stopped and Benedict seemed to be unaware of the event.

On Thursday, 24 December , while Pope Benedict was proceeding to the altar to celebrate Christmas Eve Mass at St Peter's Basilica , a woman later identified as year-old Susanna Maiolo , who holds Italian and Swiss citizenship, jumped the barrier and grabbed the Pope by his vestments and pulled him to the ground.

The year-old fell but was assisted to his feet and he continued to proceed towards the altar to celebrate Mass. Roger Etchegaray , 87, the vice-dean of the College of Cardinals, fell also and suffered a hip fracture.

Italian police reported that the woman had previously attempted to accost the Pope at the previous Christmas Eve Mass, but was prevented from doing so.

In his homily , Pope Benedict forgave Susanna Maiolo [] and urged the world to "wake up" from selfishness and petty affairs, and find time for God and spiritual matters.

Between 17 and 18 April, Pope Benedict made an Apostolic Journey to the Republic of Malta. Following meetings with various dignitaries on his first day on the island, 50, people gathered in a drizzle for Papal Mass on the granaries in Floriana.

The Pope also met with the Maltese youth at the Valletta Waterfront, where an estimated 10, young people turned up to greet him.

Prior to , the primary responsibility for investigating allegations of sexual abuse and disciplining perpetrators rested with the individual dioceses.

In , Ratzinger convinced John Paul II to put the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in charge of all investigations and policies surrounding sexual abuse to combat such abuse more efficiently.

Allen, Jr. From that point forward, he and his staff seemed driven by a convert's zeal to clean up the mess". According to Charles J. Scicluna, a former prosecutor handling sexual abuse cases, "Cardinal Ratzinger displayed great wisdom and firmness in handling those cases, also demonstrating great courage in facing some of the most difficult and thorny cases, sine acceptione personarum without exceptions ".

One of the cases Ratzinger pursued involved Father Marcial Maciel Degollado , a Mexican priest and founder of the Legion of Christ, who had been accused repeatedly of sexual abuse.

This was not always met with approval in the Vatican". In March , the Pope sent a Pastoral Letter to the Catholic Church in Ireland addressing cases of sexual abuse by Catholic priests to minors, expressing sorrow, and promising changes in the way accusations of abuse are dealt with.

In April, the Vatican issued guidelines on how existing Church law should be implemented. The guideline dictates that "Civil law concerning reporting of crimes In November , the Vatican published a report blaming not only Pope John Paul II , but also Benedict for allowing defrocked former Cardinal Theodore McCarrick to rise in power despite the fact that they both knew of sex abuse allegations against him.

S Senator Ted Kennedy 's burial service at Arlington National Cemetery in Pope Benedict XVI re-introduced several papal garments which had fallen into disuse.

Pope Benedict XVI resumed the use of the traditional red papal shoes , which had been used since Roman times by popes but which had fallen into disuse during the pontificate of Pope John Paul II.

Contrary to the initial speculation of the press that the shoes had been made by the Italian fashion house Prada , the Vatican announced that the shoes were provided by the Pope's personal shoemaker.

On only one occasion, 21 December , the Pope wore the camauro , the traditional red papal hat usually worn in the winter. It had not been seen since the pontificate of Pope John XXIII — On 6 September , the Pope began wearing the red cappello romano also called a saturno , a wide-brimmed hat for outdoor use.

Rarely used by John Paul II, it was more widely worn by his predecessors. The journalist Charlotte Allen describes Benedict as "the pope of aesthetics": "He has reminded a world that looks increasingly ugly and debased that there is such a thing as the beautiful—whether it's embodied in a sonata or an altarpiece or an embroidered cope or the cut of a cassock—and that earthly beauty ultimately communicates a beauty that is beyond earthly things.

Prior to his election as pope in , Ratzinger had hoped to retire—on account of age-related health problems, a long-held desire to have free time to write, and the retirement age for bishops 75 —and submitted his resignation as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith three times, but continued at his post in obedience to the wishes of Pope John Paul II.

In September , Ratzinger suffered a hemorrhagic stroke, which slightly impaired his eyesight temporarily but which he recovered completely.

Following his election in April there were several rumors about the Pope's health, but none of them were confirmed. Early in his pontificate Benedict XVI predicted a short reign, which led to concerns about his health.

French Cardinal Philippe Barbarin said that since the first stroke Ratzinger had been suffering from an age-related heart condition, for which he was on medication.

In late November Vatican insiders told the international press that the Pope had had a routine examination of the heart.

On 17 July , Benedict was hospitalized after falling and breaking his right wrist while on vacation in the Alps; his injuries were reported to be minor.

Following the announcement of his resignation, the Vatican revealed that Pope Benedict had been fitted with a pacemaker while he was still a cardinal, before his election as pope in The battery in the pacemaker had been replaced three months earlier, a routine procedure, but that did not influence his decision.

In it was reported that Benedict has multiple health problems including high blood pressure and reportedly has fallen out of bed more than once, but the Vatican denied any specific illnesses.

On 3 August , his aides disclosed that he has an inflammation of the trigeminal nerve. On 11 February , the Vatican confirmed that Benedict XVI would resign the papacy on 28 February , as a result of his advanced age, [] becoming the first pope to resign since Gregory XII in The move was unexpected.

Benedict was the first pope to resign without external pressure since Celestine V in In his declaration of 10 February , Benedict XVI resigned as "Bishop of Rome, Successor of Saint Peter".

He also declared that he would continue to serve the church "through a life dedicated to prayer". According to a statement from the Vatican, the timing of the resignation was not caused by any specific illness but was to "avoid that exhausting rush of Easter engagements".

On the eve of the first anniversary of Benedict's resignation he wrote to La Stampa to deny speculation he had been forced to step down.

Speculation about its invalidity is simply absurd," he wrote. On the morning of 28 February , Pope Benedict met with the full College of Cardinals and in the early afternoon flew by helicopter to the papal summer residence of Castel Gandolfo.

He stayed there until refurbishment was completed on his retirement home, the Mater Ecclesiae monastery in the Vatican Gardens near St Peter's, formerly home to 12 nuns, where he moved on 2 May It has a garden of more than 2, square meters that overlooks the monastery and is adjacent to the current "Pope's garden".

A few tens of meters away is the building of Vatican Radio. After his resignation, Benedict XVI retained his papal name rather than reverting to his birth name.

He ceased wearing red papal shoes. According to a Vatican spokesman, Benedict spent his first day as pope emeritus with Archbishop Georg Gänswein , the Prefect of the Papal Household.

The inscription on the statue, according to Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo , has the coat of arms of the two popes to symbolize the fact that the statue was commissioned by Benedict XVI, and consecrated by Francis.

Benedict XVI made his first public appearance after his resignation at St. Peter's Basilica on 22 February to attend the first papal consistory of his successor Francis.

Benedict XVI, who entered the basilica through a discreet entrance, was seated in a row with several other cardinals. He doffed his zucchetto when Francis came down the nave of St.

Peter's Basilica to greet him. In August , Benedict XVI celebrated Mass at the Vatican and met with his former doctoral students, an annual tradition he has kept since the s.

Benedict wrote the text of a speech, delivered by Archbishop Georg Gänswein, on the occasion of the dedication of the Aula Magna at the Pontifical Urbaniana University to the Pope Emeritus, "a gesture of gratitude for what he has done for the Church as a conciliar expert, with his teaching as professor, as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and, finally, the Magisterium.

Benedict XVI attended the consistory for new cardinals in February , greeting Francis at the beginning of the celebration.

Lombardi told journalists on 15 June. Benedict XVI remained there for two weeks. The "Joseph Ratzinger—Benedict XVI Roman Library" at the Pontifical Teutonic College was announced in April and was scheduled to open to scholars in November It includes books by or about him and his studies, many donated by Benedict himself.

Benedict, in August , submitted a handwritten card to act as a testimony to the cause of canonization of Pope John Paul I.

In March , he gave an interview expressing his views on mercy and endorsing Francis's stress on mercy in his pastoral practice. The pope emeritus was honoured by the Roman Curia and Francis in at a special audience, honouring the 65th anniversary of his ordination to the priesthood.

Benedict, later that year in November, did not attend the consistory for new cardinals, though he did meet with them and Francis at his residence after the consistory had taken place.

On 28 June , Benedict received the newly created cardinals in his chapel and "spoke with all of them in their native tongue" while also remarking that they were "from the four continents, the whole church".

He further said that "The Lord wins in the end. Thank you all", he said, before giving them his blessing. In July , Benedict sent a message through his private secretary Monsignor Gänswein for the occasion of the funeral of Cardinal Joachim Meisner , who had suddenly died while on vacation in Germany.

In his message, the Pope Emeritus referred to Meisner as a "passionate shepherd and pastor" who found it "difficult to leave his post".

The former pope also said that he had spoken on the telephone with Meisner the day before the latter died and related that Meisner was grateful to be on vacation after having been present for the beatification of Teofilius Matulionis in Vilnius.

In November , images emerged on the Facebook page of the Bishop of Passau Stefan Oster of Benedict with a black eye; the bishop and author Peter Seewald visited the former pope on 26 October since the pair were presenting Benedict with the new book Benedict XVI — The German Pope which the Passau diocese created.

The former pope suffered the hematoma earlier after having slipped. On 13 January , Benedict published a book expressing his view that the Church must maintain its discipline of clerical celibacy , in light of ongoing debate on the issue.

In June , Benedict visited his dying brother Georg in Germany for the last time. In January , Benedict and Francis each received doses of a COVID vaccine.

Benedict became the longest-lived pope on 4 September at 93 years, days, surpassing the age of Pope Leo XIII. The official style of the former Pope in English is His Holiness Benedict XVI, Supreme Pontiff Emeritus or Pope Emeritus.

His Holiness Benedict XVI, Bishop of Rome , Vicar of Jesus Christ , Successor of the Prince of the Apostles , Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church , Primate of Italy , Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province , Sovereign of the Vatican City State , Servant of the servants of God.

The best-known title, that of "Pope", does not appear in the official list of titles, but is commonly used in the titles of documents, and appears, in abbreviated form, in their signatures as "PP.

Before 1 March , the list of titles also used to contain that of a " Patriarch of the West ", which traditionally appeared in that list of titles before "Primate of Italy".

The title of "Patriarch of the West" was first introduced into the papal court in at the time of the First Vatican Council in the publication Annuario Pontificio and was removed in the edition.

Pope Benedict chose to remove the title at a time when discussions with the Orthodox churches have centered on the issue of papal primacy.

In , the pope listed several ways to combat the spread of HIV, including chastity, fidelity in marriage and anti-poverty efforts; he also rejected the use of condoms.

I would say that this problem of AIDS cannot be overcome merely with money, necessary though it is. If there is no human dimension, if Africans do not help, the problem cannot be overcome by the distribution of prophylactics: on the contrary, they increase it.

The solution must have two elements: firstly, bringing out the human dimension of sexuality, that is to say a spiritual and human renewal that would bring with it a new way of behaving towards others, and secondly, true friendship offered above all to those who are suffering, a willingness to make sacrifices and to practise self-denial, to be alongside the suffering.

In November , in a book-length interview, the pope, using the example of male prostitutes, stated that the use of condoms, with the intention of reducing the risk of HIV infection, may be an indication that the prostitute is intending to reduce the evil connected with his immoral activity.

Further, in December , the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith explained that the pope's statement did not constitute a legitimization of either contraception or prostitution, which remains gravely immoral.

During his time as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith CDF , Benedict XVI made several efforts to tackle the issue of homosexuality within the Church and the wider world.

In the CDF sent a letter to all bishops entitled: On the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons. The letter condemned a liberal interpretation of the earlier CDF document Declaration on Certain Questions Concerning Sexual Ethics , which had led to a "benign" attitude "to the homosexual condition itself".

On the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons clarified that the Church's position on homosexuality was that "although the particular inclination of the homosexual person is not a sin, it is a more or less strong tendency ordered toward an intrinsic moral evil; and thus the inclination itself must be seen as an objective disorder.

Such treatment deserves condemnation from the Church's pastors wherever it occurs. In , he again approved CDF documents declaring that homosexual "inclination itself must be seen as an objective disorder" and extended this principle to civil law.

On 22 December , the pope gave an end-of-year message to the Roman Curia in which he talked about gender and the important distinction between men and women.

The pope said that the Church viewed the distinction as central to human nature, and "asks that this order of creation be respected".

The Church, he said, must "protect man from self-destruction. He attacked gender theories which he described as "man's attempt at self-emancipation from creation and the Creator.

LGBT groups such as the Italian Arcigay and German LSVD have announced that they found the pope's comments homophobic.

Father Federico Lombardi , a Vatican spokesman, claimed the pope had not wished specifically to attack people with homosexual inclinations, and had not mentioned gays or lesbians in his text.

Father Lombardi insisted that there had been an overreaction to the pope's remarks: "He was speaking more generally about gender theories which overlook the fundamental difference in creation between men and women and focus instead on cultural conditioning.

During a Christmas speech, [] the pope made remarks about the present-day interpretation of the notion of " gender ".

He stated that "sex is no longer a given element of nature, that man has to accept and personally make sense of: it is a social role that we choose for ourselves", and "The words of the creation account: "male and female he created them" Gen no longer apply".

Although he didn't mention the topic, his words were interpreted by news media as denunciations of same-sex marriage , [] with some sources adding that Benedict would have called it a threat to world peace similar to abortion and euthanasia.

In a message released 14 November , during a Vatican press conference for the annual observance of World Day for Migrants and Refugees , the Pope urged the ratification of international conventions and policies that defend all migrants, including refugees, exiles, evacuees and internally displaced persons.

Pope Benedict also promoted various UN events, such as World Refugee Day , on which he offered up special prayers for refugees and called for the international community to do more to secure refugees' human rights.

He also called on Catholic communities and organizations to offer them concrete help. In , it was reported that Benedict was "praying for migrants and refugees" from Syria.

In , Benedict sent a letter at Easter to Catholics in China that could have wide-ranging implications for the church's relationship with China's leadership.

The letter provides long-requested guidance to Chinese bishops on how to respond to illicitly ordained bishops, as well as how to strengthen ties with the Patriotic Association and the Communist government.

On 13 November , Benedict said that the dispute over the North Korea nuclear weapons program should be resolved through negotiations, in his first public comment on the security issue, a news report said.

In a Le Figaro interview, Ratzinger said that Turkey, which is demographically Muslim but governmentally secular by virtue of its state constitution , should seek its future in an association of Muslim nations rather than the European Union, which Ratzinger stated has Christian roots.

He said Turkey had always been "in permanent contrast to Europe and that linking it to Europe would be a mistake".

Later visiting the country to "reiterate the solidarity between the cultures," it was reported that he made a counter-statement backing Turkey's bid to join the EU.

In May , he visited Israel. Vatican officials called the meeting "a significant stage in the progress of bilateral relations with Vietnam.

In , the Pope intervened in global economic and political affairs with his third encyclical, Charity in Truth Latin Caritas in veritate , which can be viewed on the Vatican's web site.

The Financial Times reported that Benedict XVI's advocacy for a fairer redistribution of wealth helped set the agenda for the July G8 summit. Also included in Charity in Truth is advocacy for tax choice :.

One possible approach to development aid would be to apply effectively what is known as fiscal subsidiarity, allowing citizens to decide how to allocate a portion of the taxes they pay to the State.

Provided it does not degenerate into the promotion of special interests, this can help to stimulate forms of welfare solidarity from below, with obvious benefits in the area of solidarity for development as well.

Pope Benedict XVI called for nuclear disarmament. At the same time, he supported the peaceful use of nuclear energy as a tool for development and the fight against poverty.

In his message for the 50th anniversary of the founding of the International Atomic Energy Agency , he confirmed: "The Holy See, fully approving of the IAEA's goal, has been a member from the organisation's foundation and continues to support its activity.

Benedict is known to be deeply interested in classical music, [23] and is an accomplished pianist. He is also known to be fond of cats.

A book called Joseph and Chico: A Cat Recounts the Life of Pope Benedict XVI was published in which told the story of the Pope's life from the feline Chico's perspective.

This story was inspired by an orange tabby Pentling cat, which belonged to the family next door. In December , the Vatican announced that Pope Benedict XVI had joined social networking website Twitter, under the handle Pontifex.

The life, faith, and struggle of Joseph Ratzinger: An interview with Peter Seewald The veteran German journalist discusses his new biography of Benedict XVI, and reflects in detail on Ratzinger’s. All results for Josef Ratzinger. Edit Search New Search Jump to Filters. Results of 1, Records Categories. To get better results. Germany at the Time of Ratzinger's Youth During much of the Nazi era, Joseph Ratzinger lived with his family in Traunstein, Germany, a small and staunchly Catholic town between Munich and Salzburg. During World War I there was a prisoner-of-war camp located here where, ironically, Adolf Hitler worked between December and March Ratzinger became an admirer of Karl Rahner, a well-known academic theologian of the Nouvelle Théologie and a proponent of church reform. In , Ratzinger was appointed to a chair in dogmatic theology at the University of Tübingen, where he was a colleague of Hans Küng. Joseph Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI) was born on 16 April in Marktl am Inn, Germany. His father, a police officer, came from a traditional family of farmers from Lower Bavaria. He spent his adolescent years in Traunstein, a small town on the Austrian border. Paul Plato John Paul II Boethius [3] St Bonaventure Justin Martyr Clement of Alexandria [4] Aquinas St. Vice-Dean of the Schulmädchen Report 3 of Cardinals — I would say that this problem of AIDS cannot be overcome merely with money, necessary though it is. Ratzinger wrote an introduction to a reissue of Guardini's " The Lord ". Wieviel wusste der ehemalige Papst über den Fall? Juni November Juliarchiviert vom Original Beat Serie 7.
Ratzinger Josef
Ratzinger Josef
Ratzinger Josef

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